NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department

INSTRUCTOR: Hameed Metghalchi

OFFICE : 334 SN, Phone 617-373-2973

Email: metghalchi@coe.neu.edu

Text: Thermodynamics Foundations and Applications by E.P. Gyftopoulos & G. P. Baretta, Dover

Homework: Assigned in class and due one week later.**NO LATE HOMEWORK WILL BE ACCEPTED**

Course Grading: 20% Homework, 40% Midterm, 40% Final Examination

**NO MAKE UP EXAM WILL BE GIVEN**

Explores the axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics with emphasis on rigorous definitions and general energy-engineering applications. A general definition of entropy is given, valid for all states, including non-equilibrium, and all well defined systems, including a single particle system. The simple system model clarifies what relations hold for all systems and what only for many-particle systems. Applications include cogeneration energy devices, their thermodynamic efficiency, and cost and pollution allocation among their different energy products. Properties of multicomponent mixtures are discussed in general and with emphasis on chemical reactions and chemical equilibrium.

- Definitions of system, property, state, process, weight process
- First law of thermodynamics and its consequences: energy as a property, additivity, exchangeability, Energy Balance and conservation of energy
- Definitions of reversible process, equilibrium state, unstable, metastable and stable equilibrium state, thermal reservoir
- Hatsopoulos-Keenan statement of second law of thermodynamics and its consequences
- Adiabatic availability as a property
- Available energy with respect to a reservoir
- Entropy as a property defined for all states (including non-equilibrium), additivity, exchangeability, non-decrease of entropy and entropy balance equation, entropy change in a weight process
- Maximum entropy principle
- Stable equilibrium state principle.
- Necessary Conditions for mutual stable equilibrium.
- Temperature, pressure and chemical potentials
- Representation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states on an energy versus entropy diagram
- Definition of work interaction
- Definition of heat interaction
- Clausius inequality
- Heat and work only process
- Energy (heat) engine, energy (heat) pump and refrigeration systems

- Fundamental relation
- Legendre transformation
- Enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, and other characteristic functions
- Maxwell relations
- Heat capacity in constant volume and constant pressure
- Equation of state
- Coefficient of thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility
- Coefficient of isentropic compressibility and sound speed
- Joule-Thomson coefficient

- Definition of the simple system model
- Euler and Gibbs-Duhem relations
- Definition of extensive, intensive and specific properties
- Homogeneous and heterogeneous states and phase rule
- Liquid-vapor and solid-liquid two phases equilibria
- Saturation pressure and chemical potential equality
- Clausius-Clapeyron relation
- Ideal gas model
- Van der Waals and other equation of state
- Incompressible fluid and solid model

- Definition of bulk flow state
- Definition of bulk flow interaction
- Energy, entropy and available energy (exergy) balance for a general open system
- Brief review of pump, compressor, turbine, throttle and energy (heat) exchanger
- Thermodynamic effectiveness (also known as second law efficiency)
- Relation between entropy generation by irreversibility and loss of availability (or exergy destruction)

- Duhem-Margules relation
- Interrelations between specific properties
- Partial pressures
- Gibbs-Dalton relation and model of ideal mixtures of gases
- Ideal mixtures of ideal gases
- Isothermal mixtures of ideal gases
- Amagat-Leduc model of ideal dilute liquid or solid solutions
- Expression of the chemical potentials for an ideal mixtures or solution
- Raoult law for two-phase equilibria between an ideal liquid solution and either an ideal gas mixture or an ideal solid solution

- Species and composition
- Stoichiometry, reaction coordinates and proportionality relations
- Energy, entropy and exergy balances for steady state and batch reactors
- Reaction of formation and Hess relation
- Conditions for stable equilibrium and chemical equilibrium composition
- Affinities, law of mass action, chemical constants, temperature and pressure effects
- Complete chemical equilibrium and STANJAN code
- Hydrocarbon combustion reactions
- Availability (or exergy) of a hydrocarbon fuel
- Adiabatic flame temperature
- Dissociation reaction